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Beauticians could work out of their own homes, and did not need storefronts. As a result, black beauticians were numerous in the rural South, despite the absence of cities and towns.

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They pioneered the use of cosmetics, at a time when rural white women in the South avoided them. As Blain Roberts has shown, beauticians offered their clients a space to feel pampered and beautiful in the context of their own community because, "Inside black beauty shops, rituals of beautification converged with rituals of socialization. By contrast in the black community, beauty contests were developed out of the homecoming ceremonies at their high schools and colleges. Walker — ; she built a national franchise business called Madame C.

Walker Manufacturing Company based on her invention of the first successful hair straightening process. The U.

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Still, many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war. More than two million African American men rushed to register for the draft. Most African American units were relegated to support roles and did not see combat. Still, African Americans played a significant role in America's war effort. Four African American regiments were integrated into French units because the French suffered heavy losses and badly needed men after three years of a terrible war.

One of the most distinguished units was the th Infantry Regiment , known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. They earned glory in the decisive final offensive in Champagne region of France. During action in France , Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice.

Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and eventually defeated the German troops. Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced. Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In , under pressure from Congress , the Defense Department launched an investigation.

12 Of The Oldest Pictures From Black History In America

Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, — 73 years after he was killed in action — Stowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H. Bush at the White House. The New Deal did not have a specific program for blacks only, but it sought to incorporate them in all the relief programs that it began. All races had had the same wage rates and working conditions in the WPA. It set quotas for private firms hiring skilled and unskilled blacks in construction projects financed through the PWA, overcoming the objections of labor unions.

An immediate response was a shift in the black vote in Northern cities from the GOP to the Democrats blacks seldom voted in the South.

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Militants demanded a federal anti-lynching bill, but President Roosevelt knew it would never pass Congress but would split his New Deal coalition. In Chicago the black community had been a stronghold of the Republican machine, but in the Great Depression the machine fell apart. Voters and leaders moved en masse into the Democratic Party as the New Deal offered relief programs and the city Democratic machine offered suitable positions in the Democratic Party for leaders such as William Dawson , who went Congress.

The largest group of blacks worked in the cotton farms of the Deep South as sharecroppers or tenant farmers; a few owned their farms. Large numbers of whites also were tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Tenant farming characterized the cotton and tobacco production in the post-Civil War South. As the agricultural economy plummeted in the early s, all farmers in all parts of the nation were badly hurt. Worst hurt were the tenant farmers who had relatively more control and sharecroppers who had less control , as well as daily laborers mostly black, with least control.

The problem was very low prices for farm products and the New Deal solution was to raise them by cutting production. It accomplished this in the South by the AAA , which gave landowners acreage reduction contracts, by which they were paid to not grow cotton or tobacco on a portion of their land. By law, they were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money, but some cheated on this provision, hurting their tenants and croppers. The farm wage workers who worked directly for the landowner were mostly the ones who lost their jobs.

For most tenants and sharecroppers the AAA was a major help. Researchers at the time concluded, "To the extent that the AAA control-program has been responsible for the increased price [of cotton], we conclude that it has increased the amount of goods and services consumed by the cotton tenants and croppers. Another consequence was that the historic high levels of turnover from year to year declined sharply, as tenants and coppers tend to stay with the same landowner. Researchers concluded, "As a rule, planters seem to prefer Negroes to whites as tenants and coppers.

Once mechanization came to cotton after , the tenants and sharecroppers were largely surplus; they moved to towns and cities. Over 1.

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  • They served in segregated units. Famous segregated units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and the U. Approximately 75 percent of the soldiers who served in the European theater as truckers for the Red Ball Express and kept Allied supply lines open were African-American. The distinguished service of these units was a factor in President Harry S. Truman 's order to end discrimination in the Armed Forces in July , with the promulgation of Executive Order This led in turn to the integration of the Air Force and the other services by the early s.

    Due to massive shortages as a result of the American entry into World War II, defense employers from Northern and Western cities went to the South to convince blacks and whites there to leave the region in promise of higher wages and better opportunities. As a result, African-Americans left the South in large numbers to munitions centers in the North and West to take advantage of the shortages caused by the war, sparking the Second Great Migration. While they somewhat lived in better conditions than the South for instance, they could vote and send children to better schools , they nevertheless faced widespread discrimination due to bigotry and fear of competition of housing and jobs among white residents.

    Racial tensions were also high between whites and ethnic minorities that cities like Chicago , Detroit , Los Angeles , and Harlem experienced race riots in Roosevelt , whom they widely admired. Black newspapers created the Double V campaign to build black morale and head off radical action. Most Black women had been farm laborers or domestics before the war.

    Their efforts redefined citizenship, equating their patriotism with war work, and seeking equal employment opportunities, government entitlements, and better working conditions as conditions appropriate for full citizens. They broke through old stereotypes and far surpassed the limited, poorly paid roles available in race films produced for all-black audiences. It took place from , through World War II , and lasted until Some historians prefer to distinguish between the movements for those reasons.

    In the Second Great Migration, more than five million African Americans moved to cities in states in the Northeast, Midwest, and West, including the West Coast , where many skilled jobs in the defense industry were concentrated. More of these migrants were already urban laborers who came from the cities of the South. They were better educated and had better skills than people who did not migrate. Compared to the more rural migrants of the period —40, many African Americans in the South were already living in urban areas and had urban job skills before they relocated.

    They moved to take jobs in the burgeoning industrial cities and especially the many jobs in the defense industry during World War II. Workers who were limited to segregated, low-skilled jobs in Southern cities were able to get highly skilled, well-paid jobs at West Coast shipyards. More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West. The Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision in the case of Brown v.